# Analysis in R: Basic commands for manipulating data

Many of you may use Excel to analyze data, but using R may reveal facts that Excel could not. We encourage you to use R to enrich your analysis.

Here are some basic commands, and “KARADA GOOD” introduces a number of packages. Please have a look.

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## How to find the maximum and minimum values

I think the maximum and minimum values are very important indicators.

Commands used in R

Max：max(x, na.rm = FALSE)

Min：min(x, na.rm = FALSE)

```# Missing values are excluded by setting na.rm to TRUE
# The default is FALSE
x <- c(NA, 3, 4, 12, 100)
# na.rm is TRUE
max(x, na.rm = TRUE)
 100
# na.rm is FALSE
max(x, na.rm = FALSE)
 NA
min(x, na.rm = TRUE)
 3
# na.rm is FALSE
min(x, na.rm = FALSE)
```

## Row and column sums and averages

This can be done in Excel, but there are some tasks, such as specifying a range, that can lead to errors.

Commands used in R

Row Sum：rowSums(x, na.rm = FALSE)

Row Mean：rowMeans(x, na.rm = FALSE)

Col Sum：colSums(x, na.rm = FALSE)

Col mean：colMeans(x, na.rm = FALSE)

```# Missing values are excluded by setting na.rm to TRUE
# The default is FALSE
# Create a 3*3 matrix
x <- matrix(c(8, 5, 6, 3, 9, 3, 1, 2, 3), 3, 3)
x
[,1] [,2] [,3]
[1,] 　8　 3　　1
[2,]　 5　 9　　2
[3,]　 6　 3　　3

#Row Sum
rowSums(x)
 12 16 12

#Row Mean
rowMeans(x)
 4.000000 5.333333 4.000000

#Col Sum
colSums(x)
 19 15 6
#Col Mean
colMeans(x)
 6.333333 5.000000 2.000000
```

I hope this makes your analysis a little easier !!

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