Analysis in R: If you want simple and clean graphs, here is a summary of ggplot2

RAnalytics

The ggplot2 package is a very powerful plotting package. We have compiled a list of uses and commands as a reminder.

diamondsデータ

The data used in the introduction is converted to data frames from the diamonds included in the package.

tidyverse version is 1.3.1. R version 4.2.2 is confirmed.

スポンサーリンク
Sponsored Link

Overview of ggplot2

One of the features of ggplot2 is that the commands for “reading” data, “plotting” figures from the data, and “decorating” figures are clearly separated.
It may take some getting used to, but it is a reasonable package because the commands have clear modification points, so the effort is low. Specifically, the “ggplot” command reads data, creates an object, plots, and then decorates the object.

Installing ggplot2

Run the following command. This tutorial uses the tidyverse package, which includes the ggplot2 package.

#install.packages("ggplot2")
install.packages("tidyverse")

Loading the ggplot2 library

Run the following command.

#Loading the library
#library("ggplot2")
library("tidyverse")

Data Read Command

There are two ways to read data with ggplot2: the “qplot” command, which specifies everything together from reading to plotting, and the “ggplot” command, which specializes in reading data.

Although “qplot” can be used as a precursor, we recommend using the “ggplot” command to take full advantage of ggplot2’s features: “read data” command, “plot figure from data” command, and “decorate figure” command.

Note that the x-axis, y-axis, groups, symbol colors, etc. must be specified with the aes command when loading data or within the plot command. The x- and y-axes must be specified according to the figure to be plotted.

#Data Read Command
Testdata <- diamonds

List of “aes options” that specify graph elements

List of aes options. Multiple options can be set.

表現内容オプション
軸データを指定x, y, zaes(x = 1, y = 2)
塗りつぶしの色fillaes(fill = "red")
線の色、囲み線の色colouraes(colour = "red")
色の透過度alphaaes(alpha = 0.5)
シンボルの形shapeaes(shape = 3)
シンボルのサイズsizeaes(size = 4)
線の種類linetypeaes(linetype = 1)
グループの指定groupaes(group = "読み込んだデータの列 or 行名")
並び替えorderaes(order = "読み込んだデータの列 or 行名")
x or yの最小値xmin or yminaes(xmin = 1)
x or yの最大値xmax or ymaxaes(xmax = 1)
矢印の記入xend, yend, arrowgeom_segment(aes(x = 4, y = 25, xend = 3.5, yend = 20), arrow = arrow(length = unit(0.5, "cm")))

Example of plotting read data

The elements are specified by aes from the geom_point command to plot the read data in a scatterplot. See the command comments for details.

#You can plot by specifying elements with aes
PlotData <- ggplot(Testdata)
PlotData +
  geom_point(aes(x = carat, y = price, color = color))

#To decorate a figure, you can plot it with the print command if you store an object in the argument
PointPlot <- PlotData + geom_point(aes(x = carat, y = price, color = color))
print(PointPlot)
point

Scatter plots to be plotted.

To save the file, use the ggsave command. The save in the working directory.

ggsave("Test.png", PointPlot)

Introduction to articles that may be helpful for graphing

Split plot “facet command”

How to place a graph from the right. facet_grid(. ~”name or number of the row to split”)

PlotData +
  geom_point(aes(x = carat, y = price, color = color)) +
  facet_grid(.~color) +
  labs(x = "carat", y = "price", colour = "Colour")
facet右

How to place the graph from the top. facet_grid(“name of the column or column number you want to split”~.)

PlotData +
  geom_point(aes(x = carat, y = price, color = color)) +
  facet_grid(color~.) +
  labs(x = "carat", y = "price", colour = "Colour")
facet上から順

Adjust Legend and Axis Labels

First, the plot is normal. The legend and axis labels are not the row names of the data.

PlotData <- ggplot(Testdata, aes(x = Testdata[, 1],
                                 y = Testdata[, 7],
                                 color = Testdata[, 3],
                                 size = Testdata[, 1])) +
  geom_point()
print(PlotData)
単純プロット

The legend and axis names can be customized using the labs command, which also allows you to set titles.

PlotData2 <- PlotData +
  labs(x = "Calat", y = "Price", title = "TEST PLOT",
       color = "Color", size = "SIZE")
print(PlotData2)
修正した図

Customize plot symbols

PlotData2 is used to change the transparency and color of the plot. The alpha option is added to the transparency with the aes command. If it is not set, the alpha legend will be displayed, so the guide command is used to prevent it from being displayed. The scale_colour_brewer command is used for color. For continuous data, it is better to use scale_colour_continuous, etc.

PlotData3 <- PlotData2 +
  aes(alpha = 0.01) +
  guides(alpha = "none") +
  scale_colour_brewer(palette = "Set1")
print(PlotData3)
透明度と色変更

Figure plotting commands commonly used with ggplot2

表現内容コマンド注意するオプション
切片と傾きを指定した直線geom_abline()intercept = 0, slope = 1
積み上げ折れ線グラフgeom_area()
棒グラフgeom_bar()stat = "bin or identity", position = "stack or dodge"
タイル状に表現geom_bin2d()
箱ヒゲ図geom_boxplot()outlier.colour = "black", outlier.shape = 16, outlier.size = 2, notch = FALSE, notchwidth = 0.5 *外れ値は箱の長さの1.5倍です。
ドットプロットgeom_dotplot()binaxis = "x", method = "dotdensity", binpositions = "bygroup", stackdir = "up", stackratio = 1, dotsize = 1, stackgroups = FALSE
エラーバーgeom_errorbar()水平方向のエラーバーにgeom_errorbarh()があります。
要素数を折れ線で表現geom_freqpoly()
ヒストグラムgeom_histogram()
水平方向の線geom_hline()切片はyinterceptで指定します。垂直方向はgeom_vline()です。切片はxinterceptで指定します。
ジッタープロットgeom_jitter(position = position_jitter())position_jitter()は横の振れ幅:width = 0.5と縦の振れ幅:height = 0.5があります。
折れ線グラフgeom_line()x軸は数字の小さい順からプロットされます。
要素の出現順に線で結ぶgeom_path()
散布図geom_point()
指定した範囲を枠で囲むgeom_rect()
指定した範囲の線分を描写geom_segment()
文字列の描写geom_text()
バイオリンプロットgeom_violin()

Commands for arranging the appearance of the entire figure

The character style is achieved using the theme command. The easiest way is to customize the provided theme_classic(), theme_minimal(), etc.

PlotData3 + theme_minimal()
テーマ適応

List options for theme command

The usage is theme(element = corresponding element(option)).

Ex: theme(axis.title = element_text(face = “bold.italic”, colour = “red”))

設定箇所要素対応エレメントオプション
文字全体textelement_text()family = NULL, face = "plain or italic or bold or bold.italic", colour = NULL, size = NULL, hjust = NULL, vjust = NULL, angle = NULL, lineheight = NULL
表、凡例タイトル全体titleelement_text()family = NULL, face = "plain or italic or bold or bold.italic", colour = NULL, size = NULL, hjust = NULL, vjust = NULL, angle = NULL, lineheight = NULL
軸ラベルaxis.titleelement_text()family = NULL, face = "plain or italic or bold or bold.italic", colour = NULL, size = NULL, hjust = NULL, vjust = NULL, angle = NULL, lineheight = NULL
X軸ラベルaxis.title.xelement_text()family = NULL, face = "plain or italic or bold or bold.italic", colour = NULL, size = NULL, hjust = NULL, vjust = NULL, angle = NULL, lineheight = NULL
Y軸ラベルaxis.title.yelement_text()family = NULL, face = "plain or italic or bold or bold.italic", colour = NULL, size = NULL, hjust = NULL, vjust = NULL, angle = NULL, lineheight = NULL
目盛りラベルaxis.textelement_text()family = NULL, face = "plain or italic or bold or bold.italic", colour = NULL, size = NULL, hjust = NULL, vjust = NULL, angle = NULL, lineheight = NULL
X軸目盛りラベルaxis.text.xelement_text()family = NULL, face = "plain or italic or bold or bold.italic", colour = NULL, size = NULL, hjust = NULL, vjust = NULL, angle = NULL, lineheight = NULL
Y軸目盛りラベルaxis.text.yelement_text()family = NULL, face = "plain or italic or bold or bold.italic", colour = NULL, size = NULL, hjust = NULL, vjust = NULL, angle = NULL, lineheight = NULL
凡例要素ラベルlegend.textelement_text()family = NULL, face = "plain or italic or bold or bold.italic", colour = NULL, size = NULL, hjust = NULL, vjust = NULL, angle = NULL, lineheight = NULL
凡例タイトルlegend.titleelement_text()family = NULL, face = "plain or italic or bold or bold.italic", colour = NULL, size = NULL, hjust = NULL, vjust = NULL, angle = NULL, lineheight = NULL
図タイトルplot.titleelement_text()family = NULL, face = "plain or italic or bold or bold.italic", colour = NULL, size = NULL, hjust = NULL, vjust = NULL, angle = NULL, lineheight = NULL
facetコマンド使用時要素ラベルstrip.textelement_text()family = NULL, face = "plain or italic or bold or bold.italic", colour = NULL, size = NULL, hjust = NULL, vjust = NULL, angle = NULL, lineheight = NULL
facetコマンド使用時X軸ラベルstrip.text.xelement_text()family = NULL, face = "plain or italic or bold or bold.italic", colour = NULL, size = NULL, hjust = NULL, vjust = NULL, angle = NULL, lineheight = NULL
facetコマンド使用時Y軸ラベルstrip.text.yelement_text()family = NULL, face = "plain or italic or bold or bold.italic", colour = NULL, size = NULL, hjust = NULL, vjust = NULL, angle = NULL, lineheight = NULL
線全体lineelement_line()colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, lineend = NULL
目盛り線全体axis.tickselement_line()colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, lineend = NULL
X軸目盛りaxis.ticks.xelement_line()colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, lineend = NULL
Y軸目盛りaxis.ticks.yelement_line()colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, lineend = NULL
軸線全体axis.lineelement_line()colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, lineend = NULL
X軸線axis.line.xelement_line()colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, lineend = NULL
Y軸線axis.line.yelement_line()colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, lineend = NULL
内領域の線全体panel.gridelement_line()colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, lineend = NULL
内領域の主線panel.grid.majorelement_line()colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, lineend = NULL
内領域の補助線panel.grid.minorelement_line()colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, lineend = NULL
内領域のX軸側の主線panel.grid.major.xelement_line()colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, lineend = NULL
内領域のY軸側の主線panel.grid.major.yelement_line()colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, lineend = NULL
内領域のX軸側の補助線panel.grid.minor.xelement_line()colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, lineend = NULL
内領域のY軸側の補助線panel.grid.minor.yelement_line()colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, lineend = NULL
プロット塗りつぶし全体rectelement_rect()fill = NULL, colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, color = NULL
凡例背景色legend.backgroundelement_rect()fill = NULL, colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, color = NULL
凡例シンボル背景色legend.keyelement_rect()fill = NULL, colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, color = NULL
内領域の境界線の色panel.borderelement_rect()fill = NULL, colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, color = NULL
内領域の背景色plot.backgroundelement_rect()fill = NULL, colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, color = NULL
facetコマンド使用時背景色strip.backgroundelement_rect()fill = NULL, colour = NULL, size = NULL, linetype = NULL, color = NULL
軸目盛りの長さaxis.ticks.lengthunitunit(数値, "cm")で設定するのが楽かと思います。
軸目盛りと軸ラベルの間隔axis.ticks.marginunitunit(数値, "cm")で設定するのが楽かと思います。
凡例の間隔legend.marginunitunit(数値, "cm")で設定するのが楽かと思います。
凡例要素の縦横間隔legend.key.sizeunitunit(数値, "cm")で設定するのが楽かと思います。
凡例要素の縦間隔legend.key.heightunitunit(数値, "cm")で設定するのが楽かと思います。
凡例要素の横間隔legend.key.widthunitunit(数値, "cm")で設定するのが楽かと思います。
内領域の間隔panel.marginunitunit(数値, "cm")で設定するのが楽かと思います。
プロット領域と内領域の間隔plot.marginunitunit(数値, "cm")で設定するのが楽かと思います。
凡例要素の揃えlegend.text.align0:左揃え, 1:右揃え0:左揃え, 1:右揃え
凡例タイトルの揃えlegend.title.align0:左揃え, 1:右揃え0:左揃え, 1:右揃え
凡例の位置legend.position"left", "right", "bottom", "top", or c(X, Y)"left", "right", "bottom", "top", or c(X, Y)
凡例アイテムの位置legend.direction"horizontal" or "vertical""horizontal" or "vertical"
凡例の表示位置egend.justification"center" or c(X, Y)"center" or c(X, Y)
複数凡例表示時の位置legend.box"horizontal" or "vertical""horizontal" or "vertical"
複数凡例表示時の並び方legend.box.just"top", "bottom", "left", or "right""top", "bottom", "left", or "right"

Articles about ggplot2


I hope this makes your analysis a little easier !!

タイトルとURLをコピーしました